Fuel cells are the devices that convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy. The process combines hydrogen and oxygen produce water& electricity as main products. Fuel cells are similar to batteries in that they produce electricity but also different in that a fuel is supplied without a charge-discharge cycle. Like batteries, they are portable and developed by technological experts. The cells can be used with a variety of fuels like ethanol, methanol, methane, and more.
Here are the advantages of hydrogen fuel cells –
- The cells are efficient when compared to the conventional forms of producing energy.
- Hydrogen fuel cells operate silently.
- Fuel cells eliminate pollution by switching from burning of fossil fuels to hydrogen.
- Fuel cells last longer than batteries because they use chemical fuels to produce energy.
- Hydrogen fuel cells are grid-independent and can be used anywhere.
Components of Fuel Cells. A fuel cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy, much like a battery. But unlike batteries, they produce electricity from external supplies of fuels to the anode and oxidants to the cathode. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary fuel is supplied. Electrolytes are the major components of the fuel cells and keep that allow ion exchange. Fuel cells also have electrodes that are catalysts of the electrical chemical reaction.
Fuel for Fuel Cells. Fuel cells can operate using a variety of fuels like hydrogen, ethanol, methanol, and methane. Fossil fuels like methane are extracted from underground and converted into a hydrogen rich stream. There is also a huge abundant amount of hydrogen in water which can be used for the hydrogen power supply .For higher voltages, fuel cells can be stacked. Fuel cells can power anything from microchips to buses, boats, and buildings.
Fuel Cell Efficiency. The fuel cells are much more efficient than conventional power generation. This is because conventional power is generated be converting chemical energy into heat, mechanical energy and lastly into electrical energy. Fuel cells are converting energy directly into electrical energy and are much more efficient.
Fuels cells are a promising technology and already a source of electricity for buildings and vehicles. The devices operate best with pure hydrogen. In contrast, fossil fuel reserves are in limited and the energy future of the world needs to include several renewable alternatives to our declining resources. Hydrogen is the most abundant element present in the universe and serves as the fuel for nuclear fusion in the sun. Due to this abundance, hydrogen fuel cells are the best green energy source.