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Transition between double-layer and Faradaic charge storage in porous carbon nano-material

In electrochemical cells, such as fuel cells or electrolyzers, electric double-layer (EDL) formation occurs on their electrode surfaces. These EDL act as both, capacitors and resistors and impact therefore the performance of electrochemical cells. Understanding the structure and dynamics of EDL formation could significantly improve the performance of electrochemical systems, for example in energy storage and conversion, water desalination, sensors and so forth.

On a planar electrode, electrolyte ions and the solvent are adsorbed at the electrode surface. The resulting capacitance depends on charge, salvation state and concentration. Traditionally, the capacitance of electrochemical interfaces can be divided into two types:

  1. Non-Faradaic capacitance: ions are adsorbed based on their charge. Ion adsorption is non-specific.
  2. Faradaic pseudocapacitance: specific ions are absorbed, for example through chemical interactions the electrode surface. This may involve charge transfer.

The electrode interface in the most energy application-based technology is, however, not planar but porous. Layer materials in such situations have various degrees of electrolyte confinement and thus different capacitive adsorption mechanisms. Understanding electrosorption in such materials requires a refined view of electrochemical capacitance and charge storage.

A team of researchers from the North Carolina State University, the Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology reported new insights in electrolyte confinement at the non-planar interfaces in the journal Nature Energy.

Electric double-layer at planar electrodes

The degree of ion solvation (the process of reorganizing solvent and solute molecules) at ideal (planar) electrochemical interfaces determines the ions interaction with the electrodes. There are two distinct cases:

  1. Ions are non-specifically adsorbed: this is the case with strong ion solvation. The electrode’s interactions are primarily electrostatic. This type of interactions can be considered as the induction – change is induced but not transferred.
  2. Ions are specifically adsorbed: in this case, ions are not solvated and can undergo specific adsorption and chemical bonding to the electrode. This process can be described as charge transfer reaction between the electrode and the adsorbed ion. However, the charge transfer reaction depends on the bonding between the ion and the electrode. This correlates with the state of ion solvation.  Thus, it can be expected that the ion solvation is crucial for understanding the ion-electrode interactions in a nano-confined environment such as porous materials.

Carbon based EDL capacitor – the confinement effect

There is a great interest for understanding the relationship between the porosity of carbon nano-materials and their specific capacitance.

When electric double-layer formation occurs in a nano-confined micro-environment, the EDL capacitor in porous carbon materials deviates from the classic EDL model on flat interfaces. The degree of the ion solvation under confinement is determined by the pore size in nano-porous materials and by the inter-layer distance in layered materials that is, 2D-layer materials.

Confinement of ions in sub-nanometer pores results in their desolvation, leading to the capacitance increase and deviation from the typical linear behavior on the surface area. During negative polarization of porous carbon materials with the pore sizes <1 nm, a decrease of capacitance  is observed. This is due to the ion selection limiting ion transport.

These insights are important for effectively tailoring carbon pore structures and for increasing their specific capacitance. Since carbon material is not an ideal conductor, it is important to consider its specific electric structure. For graphite materials, the availability of the charge carriers increases during the polarization which leads to increased conductivity.

Unified model of electrochemical charge storage under confinement

Since the electrochemical interface in the most technological application is non-planar, the researchers proposed a detailed evaluation and different concept of electrochemical capacitance on such non-ideal interfaces. The team evaluated electrosorption on 2D surfaces and 3D porous carbon surfaces with a continuous reduction in pore size in a step-by-step approach of increasing complexity.

The example provided relates to the charge storage characteristics of lithium ions (Li+) in the graphene sheets of organic lithium-containing electrolytes depending on the number of graphene layers. In a single graphene layer, the capacitive response is potential independent due to the absence of specific adsorption. However, with an increase of graphene sheets, redox peaks emerged that are associated with the intercalation of desolvated lithium ions. Lithium intercalation is responsible for battery wear. The team’s hypothesis was that the transition of solvated lithium ion adsorption on a single graphene sheet into subsequent intercalation of desolvated lithium ions occurs with a continuous charge storage behavior. There can be a seamless transition based on the increased charge transfer between an electrolyte ion and host associated with the extent of desolvation and confinement.

In the presented research, a unified approach was proposed that involves the continuous transition between double-layer capacitance and Faradaic intercalation under confinement. This approach excludes the traditional “single” view of electrochemical charge storage in nano-materials regarded as purely electrostatic or purely Faradaic phenomenon.

The increasing degree of ion confinement is followed by decreasing degree of ion solvation thus the increase ion-host intercalation. This results in a continuum from EDL formation through transitioning state to Faradaic intercalation, typical for EDLC nanomaterial.

Image: Pixabay

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How infrared radiation influences the behavior of interfacial water

Despite a common belief, very little is known about the structure of water and interfacial interactions. Interfacial water that is adsorbed on the surface of the hydrophilic materials is formed by both water-surface and water-water interactions. It has been discovered that the interfacial water differs from the water in bulk and can exclude solutes and microspheres, and hence it is termed an exclusion zone (EZ). EZ water is known to have a higher refractive index, viscosity, and light adsorption at 270 nm. Charge separation is also caused by water-surface interactions. For example, the water EZ near Nafion™ membranes has an electrical potential of −200 mV.

Studies showed that electromagnetic energy can affect interfacial water. Infrared (IR) energy can cause expansion of the size of the EZ leading to charge separation. This study was conducted by researchers of the University of Washington with IR light of varying intensities and wavelengths to see if they can accelerate the process and bring protons into bulk water. The scientists attempted to shed light on the complex nature of aqueous  interfaces.

Experimental analysis

Materials used:

Deionized (DI) water with the resistivity of 18.2 MΩ × cm was purified with a Barnstead D3750 Nanopure Diamond water system. Other materials were a Nafion™ N117 membrane, a potassium phosphate buffer, a pH dye and carboxylate microspheres (1 µm diameter in a 2.5% suspension)

Sample preparation:

Carboxylate microsphere suspensions with a microsphere-to-water volume ratio of 1:300 and pH-sensitive dye with the dye-to-water volume ratio of 1:20 for better visualization were added.

Due to carbon dioxide absorption the water had a slightly acidic pH of 6.35 and was neutralized. To stabilize the pH, a 1 molar potassium phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 made from equal volumes of 1 molar K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 solutions and added at a final concentration of 1 mM.

A Nafion™ membrane of 3 × 20 mm size was pre-soaked in 1 liter of DI water for 24 hours before use.

Control and irradiation experiments:

A thick plastic block chamber was injected with the 1 mL water the containing buffer solution, pH dye, and microspheres. The chamber consisted of a glass slide and a groove in the central vertical plane of the chamber was used to hold the Nafion™ membrane. This setup was placed on the stage of an inverted microscope for observation over 10 min.

For irradiation experiments, mid-infrared (MIR) LED wavelengths at 3.0 μm, and three near-infrared (NIR) LEDs of different wavelengths were used. It was placed 2 mm above the water level in the chamber. The light was kept as continuous as possible with constant emission power. It shone for 5 mins onto the water surface. The temperature of the water samples was obtained using infrared cameras.


Water zones differ from bulk water

Interfacial water excluded dye and microspheres by forming EZ water next to Nafion™. A red zone with of pH 4 was formed beyond the EZ water called proton zone (PZ). The researchers concluded that the protons accumulated there due to growing interfacial water. With the time of contact between Nafion™ and water progressing, the EZ size was doubled as did the PZ. The microspheres drifted away from Nafion™ with time.

Stability of EZ size and PZ size

It was evident from the observation that EZ water was not caused by the substance flowing out of Nafion™. It is believed that the ice-like structure of interfacial water cause EZ and PZ water. This network of hexagonal structure, several hundred microns. Electrostatic attractions exist between the EZ water layers.

Effect of IR radiation on EZ water and PZ water

The proton concentration in PZ water increased with IR intensity along with the size of EZ and PZ. Higher IR intensities weaken the OH bonds aiding those molecules to participate in EZ expansion. IR radiation also caused thermodiffusion with carboxylate microspheres moving away from the IR light spot with increasing intensity.

Effect of NIR on EZ and PZ waters

The study of the effect of NIR on interfacial water can help to better understand light therapy. Red wavelengths and NIR wavelengths are considered suitable due to their ability to deeply penetrate tissue. Light therapy aids in the synthesis of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), the universal biological energy currency. This could have medical benefits. Interfacial water could act as a photoreceptor in light therapy, as cells contain macromolecules and organelles. The use of NIR to establish a proton gradient requires further investigation.


The research showed that the  EZ and PZ zones in interfacial water stabilize after five minutes and that infrared radiation can considerably increase the size of these zones with intensity. This is possibly due to the special nature of water present on hydrophilic material surfaces.

It is also evident that IR radiation can help in building up microsphere-free zones − a phenomenon that in turn creates proton-rich zones. This is also  responsible for charge separation in interfacial water. In summary, some of the mysteries regarding the complexity of interfacial water, EZ, and PZ water zones have been clarified but much remains to be studied.


As always, further research to understand the nature of EZ and PZ of water is required. For example the viability and the possibility of the use of NIR for light therapy using interfacial water as a photoreceptor should to be studied. This applications has the potential to make a positive impact on medical applications.

References: : Effect of infrared radiation on interfacial water at hydrophilic surfaces, Colloid and Interface Science Communications, Volume 42 , May 2021, 100397

Image source: Wikipedia