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White Christmas, going … gone

In Germany, we seem to remember White Christmas from fairy tales only. Now there is also scientific evidence that winter snow cover in Europe is thinning. Thanks to global warming, the snow cover decrease accelerated

The research group behind Dr. Fontrodona Bach of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in De Bilt analyzed snow cover and climate data from six decades from thousands of weather stations across Europe. The researchers found that the mean snow depth, with the exception of some local extremely cold spots, has been decreasing since 1951 at 12% per decade. The researchers recently published their research results in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. The amount of “extreme” snow cover affecting local infrastructure has declined more slowly.

The observed decline, which accelerated after the 80s, is the result of a combination of rising temperatures and the impact of climate change on precipitation. The decreasing snow cover can reduce the availability of fresh water during the spring melt, the authors noted.

(Photo: Doris Wulf)

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Ammonia energy storage #1

The ancient, arid landscapes of Australia are not only fertile soil for huge forests and arable land. The sun shines more than in any other country. Strong winds hit the south and west coast. All in all, Australia has a renewable energy capacity of 25 terawatts, one of the highest in the world and about four times higher than the world’s installed power generation capacity. The low population density allows only little energy storage and electricity export is difficult due to the isolated location.

So far, we thought the cheapest way to store large amounts of energy was power-to-gas. But there is another way to produce carbon-free fuel: ammonia. Nitrogen gas and water are enough to make the gas. The conversion of renewable electricity into the high-energy gas, which can also be easily cooled and converted into a liquid fuel, produces a formidable carrier for hydrogen. Either ammonia or hydrogen can be used in fuel cells.

The volumetric energy density of ammonia is almost twice as high than that of liquid hydrogen. At the same time ammonia can be transported and stored easier and faster. Researchers around the world are pursuing the same vision of an “ammonia economy.” In Australia, which has long been exporting coal and natural gas, this is particularly important. This year, Australia’s Renewable Energy Agency is providing 20 million Australian dollars in funding.

Last year, an international consortium announced plans to build a $10 billion combined wind and solar plant. Although most of the 9 terawatts in the project would go through a submarine cable, part of this energy could be used to produce ammonia for long-haul transport. The process could replace the Haber-Bosch process.

Such an ammonia factories are cities of pipes and tanks and are usually situated where natural gas is available. In the Western Australian Pilbara Desert, where ferruginous rocks and the ocean meet, there is such an ammonia city. It is one of the largest and most modern ammonia plants in the world. But at the core, it’s still the same steel reactors that work after the 100 years-old ammonia recipe.

By 1909, nitrogen-fixing bacteria produced most of the ammonia on Earth. In the same year, the German scientist Fritz Haber discovered a reaction that could split the strong chemical bond of the nitrogen, (N2) with the aid of iron catalysts (magnetite) and subsequently bond the atoms with hydrogen to form ammonia. In the large, narrow steel reactors, the reaction produces 250 times the atmospheric pressure. The process was first industrialized by the German chemist Carl Bosch at BASF. It has become more efficient over time. About 60% of the introduced energy is stored in the ammonia bonds. Today, a single plant produces and delivers up to 1 million tons of ammonia per year.

Most of it is used as fertilizer. Plants use nitrogen, which is used to build up proteins and DNA, and ammonia delivers it in a bioavailable form. It is estimated that at least half of the nitrogen in the human body is synthetic ammonia.

Haber-Bosch led to a green revolution, but the process is anything but green. It requires hydrogen gas (H2), which is obtained from pressurized, heated steam from natural gas or coal. Carbon dioxide (CO2) remains behind and accounts for about half of the emissions. The second source material, N2, is recovered from the air. But the pressure needed to fuse hydrogen and nitrogen in the reactors is energy intensive, which in turn means more CO2. The emissions add up: global ammonia production consumes about 2% of energy and produces 1% of our CO2 emissions.

Our microbial electrolysis reactors convert the ammonia directly into methane gas − without the detour via hydrogen. The patent pending process is particularly suitable for removing ammonia from wastewater. Microbes living in wastewater directly oxidize the ammonia dissolved in ammonia and feed the released electrons into an electric circuit. The electricity can be collected directly, but it is more economical to produce methane gas from CO2. Using our technology, part of the CO2 is returned to the carbon cycle and contaminated wastewater is purified:

NH3 + CO2 → N2 + CH4

 

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Fuel Cells Have the Potential to Become the Best Green Energy Alternative to Fossil Fuels

Global warming is – as the name already suggests – a global concern. It causes problems such as sea level rise, more frequent and more severe strms, and longer droughts. Thus, it global warming concerns all of us. To best fight global warming, adopting green energy in your life is the best viable solution.

Green energy is getting more attention today. It helps to reduce our carbon footprint and thus curbing the global warming. Increasing carbon footprint is the main cause for rising temperatures. Moreover, investing in green energy is also a business case generating steady revenue stream without marginal costs. Hence, many governments promote the use of green energy by providing subsidies and teaching people its benefits in their life.

There are many ways green energy is produced, for example, solar energy, wind energy, the energy produced through bio-waste. Fuel cells are a major breakthrough in this regard. They have impacted the production green energy in many ways. They are also convenient to use. As their fuel (hydrogen, methane …) is produced by using electrical energy, they can use a wide range of green sources to produce energy.

What Are Fuel Cells?

A fuel cells is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. The process combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce water& electricity as main products. Fuel cells are somewhat similar batteries. The main difference is that a fuel is supplied without a charge-discharge cycle. Like batteries, fuel cells are portable and can be used with a variety of fuels like ethanol, methanol, methane, and more.

There are different types of fuel cells. But the most popular ones are hydrogen fuel cells that provide a wide range with only some of advantages as follows:

  • The cells are more efficient than conventional methods used to produce energy.
  • They are quiet – unlike, for example combustion engines or turbines
  • Fuel cells eliminate pollution by using hydrogen instead of burning of fossil fuels.
  • Fuel cells have a longer lifespan than batteries because fresh fuel is supplied constantly
  • They use chemical fuels that can be recycled or produced using renewable energy which makes them environmentally friendly.
  • Hydrogen fuel cells are grid-independent and can be used anywhere.

How Do Fuel Cells Work?

A fuel cell produces power by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy in reduction-oxidation processes, much like batteries do. However, unlike batteries, they produce electricity from external supplies of fuel to the anode and oxidants to the cathode. Fuel cells are capable of producing energy as long as the fuel required to produce energy is supplied. Main components of fuel cells are electrolytes that allow for ion exchange. They aid the electro chemical reaction.

Hydrogen, ethanol, methanol, and methane are used as a source of energy. Methane, which is extracted from the subsurface, can be transformed into hydrogen rich stream. With an abundance of the hydrogen in nature, fuel cells seem to be the most viable technology that helps to produce green energy at large scale and at the most affordable cost.

Fuel cells are all set to become the most reliable source of green energy in the near future. They are fuel efficient, so businesses can make the best use of them. At Frontis Energy, we offer a unique selection that helps you build and improve your own fuel cells – be it for research and development or for production.

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How do the fuel cells work as an effective renewable power?

Fuel cells are the devices that convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy. The process combines hydrogen and oxygen produce water& electricity as main products. Fuel cells are similar to batteries in that they produce electricity but also different in that a fuel is supplied without a charge-discharge cycle. Like batteries, they are portable and developed by technological experts. The cells can be used with a variety of fuels like ethanol, methanol, methane, and more.

Here are the advantages of hydrogen fuel cells –

  1. The cells are efficient when compared to the conventional forms of producing energy.
  2. Hydrogen fuel cells operate silently.
  3. Fuel cells eliminate pollution by switching from burning of fossil fuels to hydrogen.
  4. Fuel cells last longer than batteries because they use chemical fuels to produce energy.
  5. Hydrogen fuel cells are grid-independent and can be used anywhere.

Components of Fuel Cells. A fuel cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy, much like a battery. But unlike batteries, they produce electricity from external supplies of fuels to the anode and oxidants to the cathode. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary fuel is supplied. Electrolytes are the major components of the fuel cells and keep that allow ion exchange. Fuel cells also have electrodes that are catalysts of the electrical chemical reaction.

Fuel for Fuel Cells. Fuel cells can operate using a variety of fuels like hydrogen, ethanol, methanol, and methane. Fossil fuels like methane are extracted from underground and converted into a hydrogen rich stream. There is also a huge abundant amount of hydrogen in water which can be used for the hydrogen power supply .For higher voltages, fuel cells can be stacked. Fuel cells can power anything from microchips to buses, boats, and buildings.

Fuel Cell Efficiency. The fuel cells are much more efficient than conventional power generation. This is because conventional power is generated be converting chemical energy into heat, mechanical energy and lastly into electrical energy. Fuel cells are converting energy directly into electrical energy and are much more efficient.

Fuels cells are a promising technology and already a source of electricity for buildings and vehicles. The devices operate best with pure hydrogen. In contrast, fossil fuel reserves are in limited and the energy future of the world needs to include several renewable alternatives to our declining resources. Hydrogen is the most abundant element present in the universe and serves as the fuel for nuclear fusion in the sun. Due to this abundance, hydrogen fuel cells are the best green energy source.

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Modern Day Fuel Cells – A Commercially Viable Green Alternative

Today’s companies are developing innovative techniques to use green energy such as fuel cells. There are different types of fuel cells under development, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. The classification is determined by the kind of electro chemical reactions taking place in the cell, the required kind of catalyst, the temperature range in which the cells operate, the required fuel, and other different factors.

Frontis Energy is an industry expert in fuel cells and electrolysis storage with more than 20 years of experience. We develop innovative environmental technology products and services. Our specialty is bio-fuels and wastewater with innovative solutions at competitive prices.

Fuel cells are clean, reliable, and portable

A fuel cell is a device that uses a source of fuel like hydrogen and an oxidant for creating electricity through electro chemical processes. It converts chemical energy into electrical energy like batteries found under the hoods of automobiles or in flashlights. The basic build-up is very simple. There are in principle two types of configurations which refer to the electrolyte and the two electrodes.

Many combinations of fuels and oxidants are possible in fuel cells. The fuel can be hydrogen, diesel, methanol, natural, etc., and the oxidants can be air, chlorine, or chlorine dioxide, and so forth. But most of today’s fuel cells are using hydrogen. The hydrogen used in fuel cells can be produced by a variety of fuels, including natural gas. A fuel cell splits hydrogen into electrons and protons. Fuel cells have several advantages over other common forms of power. They are cleaner, more efficient, and quiet.

There is no doubt that fuel cells are among the most efficient ways of green energy today. They are a decentralized and Eco-friendly alternative to conventional energy production. As the cost of centralized power rises, the cost of decentralized power continues to fall. Some power professionals believe the days of centralized power are numbered. Today, fuel cells are the best device to convert chemical energy into electrical energy.

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What is the need of renewable energy sources?

Currently, we are using coal, oil, and gas as our energy resource. They are known as fossil fuels and when burned, they release heat energy that can be turned into electricity. Unfortunately, they cannot be replenished. This form of energy can also be harmful for the health and also a degrading factor for the entire health of the world. People today are turning towards the use of renewable energy for it is an energy source that is less harmful for the environment and for our health.

There are different renewable sources of energy in use today like solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Wind turbines and solar panels are becoming an increasingly common sight to be used as energy resource. Some of the other forms of clean energies are geothermal, and energy from biomass. These are effective solutions for avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the use of fossil fuels.

Here are the best benefits of a renewable energy source –

It ensures less global warming

Different human activities are overloading the atmosphere with various harmful gases and other emissions. These gases act like a blanket that result in a web of significant harmful impacts. Increasing the supply of renewable energy would allows the replacement of carbon intensive energy sources with to reduce green house gas emissions.

It improves the public health

Air pollution from using coal and oil is linked with breathing problems, heart attacks, cancer and neurological damage. Most of the negative impacts come from the air and water pollution. Wind, solar, and hydroelectric systems will generate electricity with no associated air pollution emissions.

It is better to use the inexhaustible energy

Strong winds, sunny skies, heat from underground water, and abundant plant matter will provide constant supply of energy. Renewable energy provides a significant share of electric needs, even after accounting for potential constraints.

There are many of economic benefits

Renewable energy is supporting thousands of jobs. Solar panels need workers to install them; wind farms need technicians for maintenance.

There are a lot of reasons for moving towards the use of renewable energy for now and in the future. But there are some limitations also with the use of such energy resources. It is thus advisable to contact the support experts of professionals dealing with the use of green house gases for energy production.

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What is Green Energy? How will renewable energy power the future?

Together with water, energy is the most valuable resource we have. It powers different industries.  Energy provides a system with the ability to perform work and without it, industries cannot function. Using green energy for manufacturing in growing economies is not only more sustainable but can also save money. Green energy is the energy that can be harnessed without harming the environment. This source of energy is environmentally friendly releasing very little toxic compounds into our atmosphere.

Green energy is defined as renewable energy since it is not exhausted at the source. It is also referred to as a clean energy due to the lack of negative impacts on the environment. To keep the planet clean it is important to use such alternative energy sources. One prominent example is the energy obtained from the processing of waste materials to make the environment cleaner. These materials normally pollute the environment by increasing the amount of waste material and toxic substances on the Earth’s surface.

Why use renewable energy?

It is critical to use renewable energy for reducing the global carbon emissions. Investments into such green energy have increased gradually as the cost of technologies fall and efficiency continues to rise. These are the reasons why renewable are rapidly making their way up the agenda –

Growing Price Competitiveness

Non-renewable sources of energies like fossil gas, oil, or coal, threaten power plant operators & end users, because of the insecurity of marginal costs. The price of gas fluctuates across regions, in a cyclical, though unpredictable fashion.

Renewable energy prices, on the contrary, have been continually decreasing. There have been significant price drops in solar over the last decade and the prices for onshore wind also drop significantly.

Long-term Certainty

Renewable have been heavily encouraged by policy makers and direct as well as indirect subsidies. This has driven down the costs during early deployment. The wind or solar farms are usually constructed for up to 25 to 30 years of operation, and even longer for hydro power plants. Thus, renewable continues to generate electricity for a very long time while their efficiency continues to increase.

Energy Security

The majority of non-renewable sources are concentrated in certain regions, whereas renewable energy can be domestic. This helps nations to reduce their dependencies on imported sources. The energy independence thus plays a significant role in addressing our energy needs by replacing foreign energy imports with clean electricity.

It is important to manage diminishing fossil fuel reserves and climate change is the biggest challenge the world is facing today. People are moving from non-renewable energy use to green energy to save the world for the future but also to save money. Clean energy development is vital to combat global warming and to limit its most devastating effects.

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What is the need of Fuel Cell Technology?

Fuel cell technology is one of the best alternatives to fossil fuel combustion because it reduces air pollution affecting the health of millions. Fuel cells use hydrogen and oxygen from air to produce electricity with water being the final product. While the fuel, hydrogen, can be obtained from water, engineers use natural gas to produce most of today’s hydrogen. Nonetheless, a global hydrogen initiative of scientists and engineers has plans to look into renewable and environmental-friendly ways of producing hydrogen in the future.

Fuel cells have various advantages compared to conventional power sources like the internal combustion engines or batteries.

These are the benefits of fuel cells –

  1. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than diesel or gas engines.
  2. Fuel cells work silently and they are ideally suited for use within buildings like commercial constructions.
  3. Fuel cells such as hydrogen fuel cells eliminate pollution caused by burning fossil fuels.
  4. Fuel cell also eliminates greenhouse gases for example, when clean electrolysis of water is used.
  5. Fuel cells do not require conventional fuels like oil or gas (though they can use them) and thus reduce the economic dependence on oil-producing countries.
  6. Fuel cells generate electricity that can be distributed and be grid-dependent.
  7. Stationary fuel cells can be used to generate power at the point of use for small and medium decentralized power grids.
  8. High temperature fuel cells produce process heat that is suited to co-generation applications.
  9. Unlike in batteries, the operation time of fuel cells can be extended by increasing the amount of fuel.

Like a battery, a fuel cell has two electrodes which carry charges from one electrode to the other. The reaction in a single fuel cell produces only about 0.7 volts. However, if the cells are stacked and connected in in series, their voltage increases and they can be used in cars. Scientists and engineers are developing fuel cells that run on wastewater. These so-called microbial fuel cells use microbes to break down organic matter in the wastewater. This fuel cell technology is still requires cost optimization and performance improvements to become fully competitive.

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Fresh CO2 − Now Even Cheaper!

Hurry up while stocks last, you may want to add. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a waste product from the combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal. It is almost worthless because it finds little use. However, technologies such as power-to-gas or electrosynthesis of methanol are able to convert CO2 directly into a valuable, albeit cheap, product. This increases the commercial interest in CO2 and ultimately the filtering from the air becomes economically interesting. That is, filtering CO2 from the air is now more than just an expensive strategy to fight global warming. Recently, a detailed economic analysis has been published in the journal Joule, which suggests that this filter technology could soon become a viable reality.

The study was published by the engineers of the Canadian company Carbon Engineering in Calgary, Canada. Since 2015, the company has been operating a pilot plant for CO2 extraction in British Columbia. This plant − based on a concept called Direct Air Capture (DAC) − formed the foundation for the presented economic analysis. It includes the costs from suppliers of all major components. According to the study, the cost of extracting a ton of CO2 from the air ranges from $94 to $232, depending on a variety of design options. The latest comprehensive analysis of DAC estimated $600 per tonne and was published by the American Physical Society in 2011.

In addition to Carbon Engineering, the Swiss company Climeworks also works on DAC in Zurich. There, the company has launched a commercial pilot that can absorb 900 tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere every year for use in greenhouses. Climeworks has also opened a second plant in Iceland that can capture 50 tonnes of CO2 per year and bury it in subterranean basalt formations. According to Daniel Egger of Climeworks, capturing a ton of CO2 at their Swiss site costs about $600. He expect the number to fall below $100 per ton over the next five to ten years.

Technically, CO2 is dissolved in an alkaline solution of potassium hydroxide which reacts with CO2 to form potassium carbonate. After further processing, this becomes a solid residue of calcium carbonate, which releases the CO2 when heated. The CO2 could then be disposed of underground or used to make synthetic, CO2-neutral fuels. To accomplish this, Carbon Engineering has reduced the cost of its filtration plant to $94 per ton of CO2.

CO2-neutral fuel, from carbon dioxide captured from the air and electrolytic hydrogen.

Assuming, however, that CO2 is sequestered in rock, a price of $100 per ton would translate into 0.2 cent per liter gasoline. Ultimately, the economics of CO2 extraction depend on factors that vary by location, including the price of energy and whether or not a company can access government subsidies or a carbon trading market. But the cost per ton of DAC-CO2 is likely to remain above the real market price of CO2 in the near future. For example, emission certificates in the European Union’s trading system are around €16 per tonne of CO2. If CO2 extraction technology were to gain a foothold in markets where carbon can be sold at DAC price, then DAC would of course become economical. Conversion into useful products product such as plastic or fuel could help to include the DAC premium. Alberta seems a great location because its oil is of low quality and comes at high production costs. Moreover, the size of the DAC plant suggests this is done best in Canada, given the size of the country. Albertans may want to reconsider their business model.

At Frontis Energy, we are excited about this prospect. CO2 is accessible everywhere and DAC is helping us convert it into methane gas. Power-to-gas is perfect for this. However, there would still have something to happen. $100 per ton is already good (compared to $600), but to be able to economically place a product like methane on the market it should be more like $10 per tonne:

CO2 economy of power-to-gas with electrolytic hydrogen. Cal, California, EOR, enhanced oil recovery.

Sure, we always complain, but we still cannot wait to see how the price of DAC continues to fall and wish Carbon Engineering to Climeworks all the best. Keep it up!

(Photos: Carbon Engineering)

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Green Energy, a Great Alternative to Conventional Energy

Most of the energy we use today is produced through conventional sources such as burning fossil fuels. The combustion of fossil fuels produces electricity, heat and mechanical energy for vehicles and mass transportation. They all produce enormous amounts of CO2. Throughout the Earth’s history, CO2 has always caused global warming and does so today.

Although the general consensus is that causes of global warming are clearly manmade it is still questioned by few. Nonetheless, the green energy industry is currently thriving with great perspectives, especially for developing countries. We all know the impact of global warming and greenhouse gases emitted from the vehicles and industry. So it is time to embrace green energy more and more in our life. It is not only safe for the environment and helps promote sustainable development but moreover affordable and reduce the cost of energy production.

Thanks to advancement in science and technology that have made it possible to produce energy in an eco-friendly way.

Governments, too, are providing incentives in the form of subsidies to encourage the use of green and renewable energy.

There are many possible ways to produce green energy such as solar energy, bio-waste conversion, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, and so on. But what is the most available forms are bio-waste and wastewater.

When it comes to producing energy from biofuels and wastewater, Frontis Energy is a pioneer in green energy that has been providing world-class solutions and support to produce energy from unconventional sources, particularly from wastewater to make biofuel.

The Importance of Alternative Energy aka Green Energy

We are already paying price for the way we use for the development and the way we use to make our life luxurious and comfortable.

Natural calamities like floods, droughts, and the like have become very common today, and because of them, we have to suffer significantly both in terms of money and casualty. Due to the excessive use of conventional natural resources to meet today’s energy needs we have put an enormous strain our ecosystem. And indeed, if continue with business as usual, there is a good chance that our climate is going out of control.

Environmental systems bound to ever-accelerating collapse, due to global emission of pollutants from burning fossil fuels. Fifty years after man has made the first step on the moon, we have still made a very poor progress when it comes to producing energy. Though there are many technologies that help produce green and clean energy take for example Nuclear energy which is too expensive to afford.

If we want to protect our environment from deteriorating and make it live more livable, we have to resort to green energy. New waste-to-energy technologies use energy from wastewater and convert it into biogas and other bio-fuels.

At Frontis Energy we are convinced that extracting green energy from wastewater to produce bio-fuels is cleaner and safer on the long run compared with fossil fuel.. Moreover, it is also economic and easy to produce. Wind and solar are already there. Today, anyone be it households, industry, or business can afford to produce green energy and make a significant contribution to the protection of the environment while saving much on electricity bills.

At Frontis Energy, we are committed to bringing green energy to everyone’s life across the world, is all there to help you out with world-class technology and other support solutions to produce green energy for domestic and industrial use. It is the pioneer in green energy with expertise in producing energy from biofuels, wastewater, wind, corrosion, and so on. In our Do-It-Yourself Shop you can find parts and equipment to build your own sustainable and grid-independent energy system. If there is something missing, please let us know.

We all already know the benefits of green energy. However, it is important to emphasize that reduced energy cost and grid independence are the most crucial benefits. And it should be a good choice for people with average and even low income.

Now you better understand why it is important to include green energy in our life. But still may have some doubts regarding the cost of producing energy from wastewater and bio-fuels. If you have any, Frontis Energy is right here to help you out in all ways.